Food Irradiation

iradlogo.gif  Food Irradiation: A Safe Measure

Food safety is a subject of growing importance to consumers. One reason is the emergence of new types of harmful bacteria or evolving forms of older ones that can cause serious illness. A relatively new strain of E. coli, for example, has caused severe, and in some cases life-threatening, outbreaks of food-borne illness through contaminated products such as ground beef and unpasteurized fruit juices.

Scientists, regulators and lawmakers, working to determine how best to combat food-borne illness, are encouraging the use of technologies that can enhance the safety of the nation’s food supply.

Many health experts agree that using a process called irradiation can be an effective way to help reduce food-borne hazards and ensure that harmful organisms are not in the foods we buy. During irradiation, foods are exposed briefly to a radiant energy source such as gamma rays or electron beams within a shielded facility. Irradiation is not a substitute for proper food manufacturing and handling procedures. But the process, especially when used to treat meat and poultry products, can kill harmful bacteria, greatly reducing potential hazards.

The Food and Drug Administration has approved irradiation of meat and poultry and allows its use for a variety of other foods, including fresh fruits and vegetables, and spices. The agency determined that the process is safe and effective in decreasing or eliminating harmful bacteria. Irradiation also reduces spoilage bacteria, insects and parasites, and in certain fruits and vegetables it inhibits sprouting and delays ripening. For example, irradiated strawberries stay unspoiled up to three weeks, versus three to five days for untreated berries.

Food irradiation is allowed in nearly 40 countries and is endorsed by the World Health Organization, the American Medical Association and many other organizations.

Irradiation does not make foods radioactive, just as an airport luggage scanner does not make luggage radioactive. Nor does it cause harmful chemical changes. The process may cause a small loss of nutrients but no more so than with other processing methods such as cooking, canning, or heat pasteurization. Federal rules require irradiated foods to be labeled as such to distinguish them from non-irradiated foods.

Studies show that consumers are becoming more interested in irradiated foods. For example, the University of Georgia created a mock supermarket setting that explained irradiation and found that 84 percent of participating consumers said irradiation is “somewhat necessary” or “very necessary.” And consumer research conducted by a variety of groups, including the American Meat Institute, the International Food Information Council, the Food Marketing Institute, the Grocery Manufacturers of America, and the National Food Processors Associationhas found that a large majority of consumers polled would buy irradiated foods.

Some special interest groups oppose irradiation or say that more attention should be placed on food safety in the early stages of food processing such as

in meat plants. Many food processors and retailers reply that irradiation can be an important tool for curbing illness and death from food-borne illness. But

it is not a substitute for comprehensive food safety programs throughout the food distribution system. Nor is irradiation a substitute for good food-handling practices in the home.


Questions and Answers About Irradiation

What is food irradiation?

Food irradiation is a process in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to kill harmful bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Campylo-bacter, and Salmonella. The process also can control insects and parasites, reduce spoilage, and inhibit ripening and sprouting.

Is irradiated food safe?

Yes. The Food and Drug Administration has evaluated the safety of this technology over the last 40 years and has found irradiation to be safe under a variety of conditions and has approved its use for many foods. Scientific studies have shown that irradiation does not significantly reduce nutritional quality or significantly change food taste, texture or appearance. Irradiated foods do not be-come radioactive. Irradiation can produce changes in food, similar to changes caused by cooking, but in smaller amounts.

How does irradiation work?

Food is packed in containers and moved by conveyer belt into a shielded room. There the food is exposed briefly to a radiant-energy source the amount of energy depends on the food. Energy waves passing through the food break molecular bonds in the DNA of bacteria, other pathogens, and insects. These organisms die or, unable to reproduce, their numbers are held down. Food is left virtually unchanged, but the number of harmful bacteria, parasites and fungi is reduced and may be eliminated.

How do I know if food has been irradiated?

FDA currently requires that irradiated foods include labeling with either the statement “treated with radiation” or “treated by irradiation” and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura (pictured at the top of this document).

Are irradiated foods available now?

Not widely yet. Some stores have sold irradiated fruits and vegetables since the early 1990s. Irradiated poultry is available in some grocery storesmostly small, independent marketsand on menus of a few restaurants.

On the other hand, some spices sold wholesale in this country are irradiated, which eliminates the need for chemical fumigation to control pests. American astronauts have eaten irradiated foods in space since the early 1970s. Patients with weakened immune systems are sometimes fed irradiated foods to reduce the chance of a life-threatening infection.

Are food irradiation facilities safe for workers and surrounding communities?

Yes. The transport and handling of radioactive material is strictly regulated, and irradiation facilities are made to withstand natural disasters such as earthquakes. The radioactive cobalt commonly used is made specially to serve as a safe radiation source for hospitals and irradiation facilities. Workers in irradiation plants are protected by thick walls surrounding the radiation source. If workers need to enter the irradiating room, the energy source is lowered into a pool of water that absorbs the radiation and protects the workers from any exposure. In electron beam facilities, the energy source is turned off. There are about 30 licensed irradiation facilities in the United States, used mainly to sterilize medical equipment, many consumer products, and, in some cases, food.

Will irradiated foods cost more?

Irradiated products sold to date have cost slightly more than their conventional counterparts. Some industry experts estimate the increase at two to three cents per pound for fruits and vegetables and three to five cents a pound for meat and poultry products. But these costs may be offset by advantages such as keeping a product fresh longer and enhancing its safety. Food trade groups say that as irradiated foods become more widespread, their cost is likely to drop.


Proper Food Handling Still Needed

Experts emphasize that though food irradiation can reduce food-borne illness risk, the process complements, but doesn’t replace, proper food handling practices by producers, processors and consumers. For example, a few bacteria may survive the irradiation process in meats and poultry and could multiply if the meat is left unrefrigerated. Also, bacteria from other foods can be carried to irradiated foods if care isn’t taken to avoid cross-contamination. So consumers should continue to follow these food safety precautions:

Clean–Wash hands in hot, soapy water before preparing food and after using the bathroom, changing diapers and handling pets. Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and countertops in hot, soapy water after preparing each food item and before going on to the next one.

Separate–Avoid cross-contamination by keeping raw meat, poultry and seafood separate from other foods in the grocery cart and in the refrigerator. If possible, use one cutting board for raw meat products and another for salads and other foods that are ready to be eaten. Don’t place cooked food on a plate that has held raw meat, poultry, seafood, or uncooked marinades.

Cook–Use a meat thermometer to measure the internal temperature of cooked meat and poultry to ensure thorough cooking. Ground poultry should be cooked to at least 165 degrees F; ground meat, 160 degrees F; roasts and steaks, 145 degrees F; and poultry (whole bird), 180 degrees F. Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm, and cook fish until it is opaque and flakes easily. Boil sauces, soups and gravy when reheating, and heat other leftovers to 165 degrees F.

Chill–Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods, and leftovers within two hours. Never defrost or marinate foods on the counter. Use the refrigerator, cold running water, or a microwave oven. Divide large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow containers for quick cooling in the refrigerator. Remove stuffing from poultry and other stuffed meats after cooking and refrigerate in a separate container. Don’t pack the refrigerator full. Cool air must circulate to keep food safe.


Call 1-888-SAFEFOOD for more information on food safety.

The organizations listed below have contributed to the content and printing of this brochure:
American Meat Institute
Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
Food Marketing Institute
Grocery Manufacturers of America
National Cattlemen’s Beef Association
National Food Processors Association
The American Dietetic Association

January 2000
Publication No. (FDA) 00-2329

HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventative approach to food safety that addresses physical, chemical and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCP’s) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realised. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes.

Today HACCP is being applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

This method, which in effect seeks to plan out unsafe practices, differs from traditional “produce and test” quality assurance methods which are less successful and inappropriate for highly perishable foods.

Contents

1 The HACCP Seven Principles

2 History

The HACCP Seven Principles

HACCP is based around seven established principles.

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis. Plants determine the food safety hazards and identify the preventive measures the plant can apply to control these hazards. A food safety hazard is any biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.

Principle 2: Identify critical control points. A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.

Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each critical control point. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level.

Principle 4: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements. Monitoring activities are necessary to ensure that the process is under control at each critical control point. In the United States, the FSIS is requiring that each monitoring procedure and its frequency be listed in the HACCP plan.

Principle 5: Establish corrective actions. These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an established critical limit. The final rule requires a plant’s HACCP plan to identify the corrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.

Principle 6: Establish record keeping procedures. The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records documenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations.

Principle 7: Establish procedures for verifying the HACCP system is working as intended. Validation ensures that the plans do what they were designed to do; that is, they are successful in ensuring the production of safe product. Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans. FSIS will not approve HACCP plans in advance, but will review them for conformance with the final rule.

Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. Verification procedures may include such activities as review of HACCP plans, CCP records, critical limits and microbial sampling and analysis. FSIS is requiring that the HACCP plan include verification tasks to be performed by plant personnel. Verification tasks would also be performed by FSIS inspectors. Both FSIS and industry will undertake microbial testing as one of several verification activities. the occurrence of the identified food safety hazard.


This flow diagram is representative of HACCP for the food industry; the HACCP program can be adapted for other industries as well.

haccp_seven_principles.png

History

The impetus behind modern HACCP programs first began as a natural extension of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) that food companies had been using as a part of their normal operations. A system was needed that enabled the production of safe, nutritional products for use by NASA starting in the late 1950’s to feed future astronauts who would be separated from medical care for extended periods of time. Without medical intervention, an astronaut sickened by foodborne illness would prove a very large liability and could possibly result in the failure of entire missions. Food products could not be recalled or replaced while in space.

Beginning in 1959, the Pillsbury company embarked on work with NASA to further develop a process stemming from ideas employed in engineering systems development know as Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA). Through the thorough analysis of production processes and identification of microbial hazards that were known to occur in the production establishment, Pillsbury and NASA identified the critical points in the process at which these hazards were likely introduced into product and therefore should be controlled.

The establishment of critical limits of specific mechanical or test parameters for control at those points, the validation of these prescribed steps by scientifically verifiable results, and the development of record keeping by which the processing establishment and the regulatory authority could monitor how well process control was working all culminated in what today is known as HACCP. In this way, an expensive or time consuming testing procedure is not required to guarantee the safety of each piece of food leaving an assembly line, but rather the entire process has been seamlessly integrated as a series of validated steps.

In 1971 the HACCP approach was presented at the first American National Conference for Food Protection. 1973 saw the US FDA apply HACCP to Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, although if you read those regulations carefully, you will note that they never actually mention HACCP. From 1988 to the present day, HACCP principles have been promoted and incorporated into food safety legislation in many countries around the world.

Beginning in 1996, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) established a detailed Pathogen Reduction / Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program under the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to regulate the production of raw meat products by large scale facilities. There is currently no HACCP requirement in the US for food processors such as supermarket deli or butcher departments that purchase from certified producers.

European Regulation & Small Businesses

The European Union introduced new food hygiene regulations on 1-January-2006 that requires all food businesses within the EU, except primary producers, to operate food safety management procedures based on HACCP principles. Significant flexibility has been included to allow small businesses to comply. HACCP systems are not readily applicable to food businesses like retail caterers and the flexibility allows alternatives to HACCP that achieve the same outcome of safe food being produced. The U.K. Food Standards Agency has produced an adapted simplified version of HACCP for small caterers and retailers called ‘Safer Food Better Business’ (SFBB) that uses this flexibility and is an example of how quality systems and HACCP principles can be creatively adapted for small businesses and different situations. http://www.bluebobble.com for more information.

Kapsul Angelica

COMPOSITION  
Angelica keiskei koidzumi 100%
POM TR 053 343 351
Netto : 90 capsules

Ashitaba termasuk dalam spesies famili seledri. Batangnya mempunyai lapisan cairan berwarna kuning yang mengandung Chalcone, yang bersifat khas untuk strain dari angelica (Angelica keiskei koidzmi). Chalcone jarang ditemukan di bahan alami manapun tetapi ini merupakan faktor kunci ashitaba. Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa sifat khas ashitaba setidak-tidaknya merupakan bagian yang berhubungan dengan komponen yang luar biasa ini. Chalcone yang terdapat di ashitaba terkenal dengan sebutan Xanthoangelol, Xanthoangelol-E and 4-Hydrooxyderricin yang ditemukan oleh Dr. Kimie Baba (MD, Osaka University of Pharmacy). Komponen organik ini berupa flavonoid dan komponen tersebut memberi ciri khas lapisan kuning dari tanaman ashitaba. Hal inilah yang membedakan ashitaba dari semua strain angelica. Aktivitas antioksidan dari flavonoid berhubungan dengan struktur molekulernya, dan sifat struktur dari flavonoid tertentu yang ditemukan di ashitaba berpotensi sebagai antioksidan yang aktivitasnya melebihi anggur merah, teh hijau atau kedelai.

Kapsul Made

COMPOSITION  
Phaleria M 65%
Amylum 35%
POM TR 033 329 721
Netto : 30 capsules

Traditionally it helps to treat severe cancer, hypertension, hyperuricemia, lever disease, antitoxic, hemostatic agent for bleeding and allergy


 

Secara tradisional digunakan dalam proses penyembuhan dan membantu pengobatan penderita kanker , tekanan darah tinggi, asam urat, lever, pendarahan, membersihkan racun dan alergi.

Kapsul Made Prostam

COMPOSITION  
Pimpinellae folia 45%
Eucherestae semen 37%
Cubebae fructus 18%
POM TR 053 143 591
Netto :
30 capsules

Traditionally it used to increase vitality as a sexual stimulant and endurance

Story : There are many people who can testify that Made Prostam Capsules are greatly effective to elevate a male’s vitality, physically as well as sexually. On the other hand, many also suspect that our super stamina extracts contain chemicals, as can be found in other stimulants widely sold in the market. We guarantee that the Made Prostam Extract we produce is prepared from genuine native Indonesian herbs.

There is the intriguing story of a gentleman from Medan whose libido and sexual potency – thanks to Prostam Made Capsules – suddenly became invigorated in such a way that his wife grew suspicious of her husband’s capabilities. The effect was indeed beyond expectation!


Secara tradisional ”Kapsul Made Prostam” digunakan untuk meningkatkan vitalitas, keperkasaan, dan gairah seks. Dengan meningkatnya vitalitas tubuh Anda, maka Anda akan merasa segar sepanjang hari meskipun padat dengan segudang aktivitas. Nikmati kebugaran tubuh Anda, hilangkan rasa lemah, letih, lesu yang akan mengganggu acara-acara bahagia Anda.

Aturan pakai :
Pencegahan : 1 x 1 kapsul sehari
Pengobatan : 3 x 1 kapsul sehari
Banyak minum air putih.

Kapsul Madeca

COMPOSITION  
Phaleria M fr 15,80%
Curcuma Zedoaria 15,80%
Curcuma Rhizoma 15,80%
Gynura Procumbens 15,80%
Curcuma Alba 15,80%
Centellae Herba 16,00%
POM TR 053 353 681

Madeca – New Treatment for Cancer

Hasil Penelitian
Hasil uji Farmakodinamik menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak Madeca mampu menghambat pertumbuhan sel MCF 7 (Kanker Payudara) dengan konsentrasi sebesar 70,99 yg/ml.

Tahukah Anda???
Hanya rambut dan kuku yang terbebas dari kanker. Secara teori, kanker biasanya menyerang orang dewasa atau orang di atas umur 40 tahun. Namun, kenyataannya kanker bisa menyerang siapa saja tanpa pandang bulu. Pada pria, paru-paru menjadi organ tubuh paling rawan terserang kanker, sedangkan pada wanita di payudara paling rawan terserang kanker.

A. Penyebab Terjadinya Kanker :
Diduga kebiasaan merokok, minuman beralkohol, polusi udara, dan lokasi kerja di tempat industri menjadi pemicu utama.
Pada wanita yang terserang kanker biasanya disebabkan oleh riwayat kanker keluarga, menstruasi dini, terlambat menikah, berganti-ganti pasangan seks, aliran menstruasi vang banyak dan tidak teratur, diet jangka panjang yang salah, makanan yang berlemak.
Tumor yang awalnya jinak jika tidak diobati secara benar akan meradang dan bisa berubah menjadi tumor ganas yaitu kanker.

B. Gejala Tumbuhnya Kanker
Luka koreng atau bengkak yang tidak kunjung sembuh
Ada benjolan atau jaringan liar di bagian tubuh

Perdarahan sangat banyak, baik pada masa haid maupun tidak haid
Mengalami sakit kepala terus-menerus
Badan selalu lemah, tak bertenaga, demam, dan muka pucat

C. Kapsul Madeca
Jangan biarkan kanker merenggut kasih anda….Anda bisa menghindarinya, cegah kanker sedini mungkin!! Madeca adalah kapsul yang terdiri dari berbagai macam herbal dan digunakan untuk mencegah dan mengatasi kanker, tumor, kista dan mioma.

D. Kontraindikasi
Wanita hamil dianjurkan tidak mengonsumsi obat ini.

E. Komentar konsumen
Berdasarkan uji laboratorium, setelah 3 bulan mengonsumsi Kapsul Madeca dan herbal pelengkap lainnya, kista di rahim saya dinyatakan hilang.
Ny. Etty Rasmiaty, Padang (Penderita Kista)

“Setelah 3 bulan mengonsumsi Kapsul Madeca dan herbal pelengkap lainnya, payudara saya yang sebesar kelapa hijau terus mengempis dan bentuknya kembali normal serta tidak merasakan sakit lagi”.
Ny. Yudiati, Tangerang (Penderita Kanker Payudara)

Kapsul Madedem

COMPOSITION

Phaleria macrocarpa fr 23,75 mg
Andrographis 23,75 mg
Curcuma xanthoriza rh 19,00 mg
Morinda cintrifolia fr 23,75 mg
 
POM TR 063 362 541
Netto : 30 capsules

Diabetes merupakan penyakit di mana pankreas tidak dapat menghasilkan insulin secara cukup atau tubuh memang tidak dapat menggunakan insulin yang dihasilkan secara efektif. Diperkirakan ada 180 juta orang di dunia terkena diabetes. Jumlah ini akan naik menjadi 2x lipat pada tahun 2030. Pada tahun 2005 ada 1,1 juta orang meninggal akibat diabetes, di mana 80% angka kematian terjadi di negara dengan penghasilan rendah sampai menengah. Perlu diketahui pula bahwa hampir separuhnya terjadi di bawah usia 70 tahun dan 55% nya adalah wanita (Sumber : WHO).

Gejala Umum pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus….

Umumnya penderita sering buang air kecil (poliuria), terutama pada malam hari, sering lapar (poligagia), lemas, dan berat badan menurun. Gejala yang lain adalah : gatal-gatal, kesemutan, luka yang tidak sembuh-sembuh, rasa baal, mata kabur, impotensi pada pria, pada wanita sering terjadi gatal-gatal pada vulva, keputihan, infeksi saluran kemih. Jika gejala-gejala ini mulai Anda rasakan sebaiknya segera untuk memeriksa kadar gula darah. Kadar gula darah biasanya diukur dalam keadaan puasa (8-10 jam tidak makan/minum manis, hanya dibenarkan minum air putih saja) yaitu sekitar 70 – 120 mg/dl. Bila kadar gula darah lebih tinggi dari itu maka ada kemungkinan orang tersebut menderita diabet. Jangan biarkan tubuh Anda tiba-tiba harus diamputasi akibat diabetes. Cegah sedini mungkin agar lebih banyak cita-cita yang dapat Anda raih.

Salah satu kunci bagi penderita diabetes adalah pengaturan diet secara ketat. Salah dalam menentukan menu bisa jadi masalah besar. Guna membantu para penderita diabetes, kami menghadirkan inovasi produk baru berupa ”kapsul Madedem”. Secara tradisional, kapsul ini digunakan bagi para penderita diabetes melitus. Karena kapsul ini merupakan perpaduan beberapa ekstrak herbal yaitu : Mahkotadewa, Angelica, Sambiloto dan Mengkudu, yang telah diformulasi secara seimbang, sehingga tidak mengiritasi lambung. Dengan konsumsi 1 x 1 kapsul sehari atau maksimum 3 x 1 sehari akan membantu Anda untuk mengontrol kadar gula darah di angka normal. Sebagaimana hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Suryadhana (UNIKA Widya Mandala Surabaya) dengan menggunakan binatang percobaan tikus dinyatakan, bahwa ekstrak daun sambiloto dengan dosis 0,5 g/kg bb, 1 g/kg bb dan 1,5 g/kg bb dapat menghambat kenaikan kadar glukosa darah tikus normal (POM).